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Cigarette smoking and quality of life

Page history last edited by Dr.Ahmed Abdulaziz Nouman 10 years, 5 months ago



Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996 Nov;8(11):1075-81.

Cigarette smoking and quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. South Limburg IBD Study Group.

Russel MG, Nieman FH, Bergers JM, Stockbrügger RW.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Comment in:

OBJECTIVE: Smoking has been reported as influencing disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of our study was to elucidate the relationship between smoking and aspects of disease-specific quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: In 1105 prevalent patients with inflammatory bowel disease, diagnosed according to the criteria of Lennard-Jones and Truelove and Witts, disease-specific quality of life was investigated using the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). RESULTS: In Crohn's disease, smoking females reported a lower quality of life than non-smoking females (all four dimensions of the IBDQ). Using an explanatory model of relationships between the four dimensions for the analysis, it became evident that smoking is associated with more bowel symptoms in young Crohn's disease females, with more emotional dysfunction in all Crohn's disease females, and with more systemic symptoms in all three diagnostic groups with marked bowel symptoms. Moderately smoking male ulcerative colitis patients reported fewer bowel complaints compared with non-smoking male ulcerative colitis patients. CONCLUSION: There is a relationship between smoking and disease-specific quality of life in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The hypothesis is presented that a part of the observed differences in the studied quality of life dimensions with respect to age, sex and disease group are related to concomitant oral contraceptive use.

PMID: 8944369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Smoking and inflammatory bowel diseases: what in smoking alters the course?

El-Tawil AM.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, atawil20052003@yahoo.co.uk.

Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence to confirm the correlation between cigarette smoking and inflammatory bowel diseases. This relationship is proved to be positive in Crohn's disease and negative in ulcerative colitis. What in smoking alters the course of inflammatory bowel diseases is still a mystery. Different smoking parts have different and may be opponent actions. Smoking has dual effects. Some of its activities are, sometimes, constructive as they are working in an antagonistic manner to the mechanism of the disease, such as reducing rectal blood flow and accordingly less recruitments of inflammatory mediators to the area of inflammation, enhancement of mucosal production, and consequently, strengthening the membranes, and inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators' liberation and activity in subjects with ulcerative colitis. Yet the outcome of smoking actions may be affected by the existence of other cofactors. Odd factors, such as shortage of zinc in subjects with Crohn's disease, may facilitate liberation of pro-inflammatory mediators and their activities and accordingly exacerbates symptoms.

PMID: 20333390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Arq Gastroenterol. 1996 Apr-Jun;33(2):74-8.

[Smoking and inflammatory bowel disease: an epidemiological case-control study]

[Article in Portuguese]

Martins Júnior EV, Araújo IS, Atallah AN, Miszputen SJ.

Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo--UNIFESP-EPM.

Smoking is one of the most consistent epidemiological features related to occurrence and evolution of inflammatory bowel disease. Ulcerative colitis is accepted as a non or ex-smokers disease suggesting a protective role of tobacco against its development. In contrast there are more Crohn's disease cases between smokers. Sixty eight patients with inflammatory disease (36 ulcerative colitis; 32 Crohn's disease) and 136 patients with gastrointestinal functional disorders were matched for sex, age, scholarity and professional and religious patterns. They are divided in smokers, ex- and non-smokers. The inflammatory bowel disease patients were asked about the relationship between smoking and onset of the disease, and exposure, as passive smokers, during childhood. Smoking habit protected against ulcerative colitis (OR:0.30, IC:95%), but not against Crohn's disease (OR:0.81, P > 0.5). There was no increased risk for development of Crohn's disease between smokers; 72.7% of ex-smokers acquired ulcerative colitis and 44.4% Crohn's disease after tobacco habit has stopped. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoking during childhood did not increased the risk for ulcerative colitis (OR:0.93, P < 0.1) neither for Crohn's disease (OR:0.44, P < 0.2). Our results are similar to those of the literature related to protection of ulcerative colitis by smoking habit. Further experimental and clinic studies are in need to clarify the possible pharmacological and therapeutic action of tobacco products in this inflammatory disease.

PMID: 9109972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Mar;88(3):356-9.

Passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease in children.

Lashner BA, Shaheen NJ, Hanauer SB, Kirschner BS.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Illinois.

Adult cigarette smoking is associated with the development of Crohn's disease and protection from the development of ulcerative colitis. Children usually are nonsmokers whose risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be related to passive smoking. The purpose of this matched case-control study was to evaluate passive smoking exposure in 72 nonsmoking children with recently diagnosed IBD (39 with ulcerative colitis and 33 with Crohn's disease), and in an equal number of peer-nominated controls. Passive smoking exposure at birth was significantly associated with the development of IBD (odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.28-7.06). The effect was greater in Crohn's disease (odds ratio 5.32) than in ulcerative colitis (odds ratio 2.19). Maternal smoking at birth also was significantly associated with the development of IBD (odds ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.02-4.29), an effect that also was greater in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis. There was a dose-response relationship between packs smoked per day and IBD, and packs smoked at home per day and IBD. At symptom onset, the risk of developing IBD from passive smoking exposure was increased but was not significant (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 0.84-4.18). The magnitude of the effect was greater in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, and the association demonstrated dose-response. In conclusion, passive smoking exposure and maternal smoking at birth and, to a lesser extent, passive smoking exposure at symptom onset are associated with an increased risk of developing IBD in children. The association is stronger in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, and there is a dose-response effect. The specific toxic exposure is more likely to be inhaled rather than passed through the placenta or in breast milk.

PMID: 8438840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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